E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Original Article


Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt

Ahmed E Mahmoud, Mamdouh M. El-Maghraby, Reham M. Eltarabili, Essam S. Soliman.

Abstract
Background: Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common disorder associated with dysfunction of the urinary bladder or urethra in tom-cats.
Aim: A prospective study was carried out on the point prevalence (PP) and odds ratio (OR) of the FLUTD in Shirazi and Baladi tom-cats at Ismailia governorate– Egypt, record the prominent clinical manifestation, as well identify the antibiogram, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance genes of the causative micro-organisms.
Methods: A total number of 420 tom-cats admitted to the veterinary clinics of Ismailia during the period June 2020 to May 2021 were examined for FLUTD. A total of 1260 urine samples were collected and analyzed.
Results: Haematuria, dysuria, and pollakiuria were the most evident signs recorded in a total of 120 Tom-cats diagnosed with FLUTD. The diagnosed cases of FLUTD were associated with causes like crystals (35.83%), pyogenic micro-organisms (19.16%), and mixed cases (45.00%). Prevalence reveals highly significant (p < 0.01) increases in the cases caused by Escherichia coli, E. coli mixed cases, and calcium oxalate at > 4-y; Staphylococcus aureus at ≤ 2; amorphous urate and phosphate at 2: 4 and > 4-y Shirazi and ≤ 2-y Baladi; triple-phosphate at ≤ 2-y Shirazi and > 4-y Baladi; and Staph aureus mixed cases at ≤ 2-y. The odd ratio of FLUTD reveals higher odds of associations with E. coli, E. coli mixed cases, Staph aureus, amorphous urate, and triple-phosphate, as well as lower odds with Staph aureus, calcium oxalate, amorphous phosphate, and Staph aureus mixed cases. Isolated E. coli reveal higher resistance to amoxicillin (83.4%), ceftriaxone (83.4%), ceftazidime (75.0%), and cefoxitin (50.0%), and Staph aureus to oxacillin (100%), cefoxitin (100%), amoxicillin (85.8%), ceftazidime (76.2%), and cefoxitin (50.0%). Staph aureus detected virulence genes were mecA, coa, spa, and tetK, and E. coli were fimH, iss, iutA, papC, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and tetA. About 100% of E. coli and 76.1% of Staph aureus isolates exhibited multidrug resistance.
Conclusion: FLUTD in tom-cats is associated with higher odds in E. coli, E. coli mixed cases, and triple-phosphate at older ages (>4-y) with high antimicrobial resistance in the microbial isolates contributing to the disease.

Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Crystals & Microbial, Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease, Prevalence, Odd Ratio, Virulence.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Mahmoud AE, El-Maghraby MM, Eltarabili RM, Soliman ES, . Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Vet J. 2022; 12(2): 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18


Web Style

Mahmoud AE, El-Maghraby MM, Eltarabili RM, Soliman ES, . Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=139961 [Access: February 07, 2023]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mahmoud AE, El-Maghraby MM, Eltarabili RM, Soliman ES, . Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Vet J. 2022; 12(2): 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mahmoud AE, El-Maghraby MM, Eltarabili RM, Soliman ES, . Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Vet J. (2022), [cited February 07, 2023]; 12(2): 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



Harvard Style

Mahmoud, A. E., El-Maghraby, M. M., Eltarabili, R. M., Soliman, E. S. & (2022) Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Vet J, 12 (2), 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



Turabian Style

Mahmoud, Ahmed E, Mamdouh M. El-Maghraby, Reham M. Eltarabili, Essam S. Soliman, and . 2022. Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Veterinary Journal, 12 (2), 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



Chicago Style

Mahmoud, Ahmed E, Mamdouh M. El-Maghraby, Reham M. Eltarabili, Essam S. Soliman, and . "Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt." Open Veterinary Journal 12 (2022), 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mahmoud, Ahmed E, Mamdouh M. El-Maghraby, Reham M. Eltarabili, Essam S. Soliman, and . "Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt." Open Veterinary Journal 12.2 (2022), 290-302. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mahmoud, A. E., El-Maghraby, M. M., Eltarabili, R. M., Soliman, E. S. & (2022) Epidemiological Investigations on Microbial Infection and Crystals Causing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Tom-Cats of Ismailia, Egypt. Open Veterinary Journal, 12 (2), 290-302. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.18