E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Research Article


Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes

Yoichiro Kasuga, Ailing Hu, Zenji Kawakami, Masahiro Tabuchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Shigaku Ikeda.


Abstract
Background:
Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is caused by skin barrier dysfunction due to allergen exposure. Excessive glutamate release in the skin is associated with delayed skin barrier function recovery and epidermal thickening and lichenification. Treatment with Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese medicine, reduces dermatitis severity and scratching behavior in NC/Nga mice by decreasing epidermal glutamate levels. However, the association between canine keratinocytes and glutamate and the mechanism by which YKS inhibits glutamate release from keratinocytes remains unknown.
Aim:
We aimed to investigate glutamate release from canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEKs) and the inhibitory effect of YKS on this release. We also explored the underlying mechanism of YKS to enable its application in CAD treatment.
Methods:
Glutamate produced from CPEKs in the medium at 24 h was measured. The measurement conditions varied in terms of cell density and YKS concentration. CPEKs were treated with a glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), a glutamate transporter antagonist (THA), and a glutamate dehydrogenase inhibitor (epigallocatechin gallate; EGCG), and the inhibitory effect of YKS, YKS + THA, MK-801, and EGCG on this release was determined. MK-801 and glutamate dehydrogenase inhibitor were tested alone, and THA was tested in combination with YKS. Finally, glutamine incorporated into CPEKs at 24 h was measured using radioisotope labeling.
Results:
CPEKs released glutamate in a cell density-dependent manner, inhibited by YKS in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, YKS reduced the intracellular uptake of radioisotope-labeled glutamine in a concentration-dependent manner. No involvement of glutamate receptor antagonism or activation of glutamate transporters was found, as suggested by previous studies. Additionally, EGCG could inhibit glutamate release from CPEKs.
Conclusion:
Our findings indicated that glutamate release from CPEKs could be effectively inhibited by YKS, suggesting the utility of YKS in maintaining skin barrier function during CAD. Additionally, CPEKs are appropriate for analyzing the mechanism of YKS. However, we found that the mechanism of action of YKS differs from that reported in previous studies, suggesting that it may have had a similar effect to EGCG in this study. Further research is warranted to understand the exact mechanism and clinical efficacy in treating CAD.

Key words: Canine atopic dermatitis, Canine progenitor epidermal keratinocyte, Glutamate, Glutamine, Yokukansan


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kasuga Y, Hu A, Kawakami Z, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, HK, Ikeda S. Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(2): 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8


Web Style

Kasuga Y, Hu A, Kawakami Z, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, HK, Ikeda S. Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=174198 [Access: April 09, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kasuga Y, Hu A, Kawakami Z, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, HK, Ikeda S. Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(2): 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kasuga Y, Hu A, Kawakami Z, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, HK, Ikeda S. Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited April 09, 2024]; 14(2): 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



Harvard Style

Kasuga, Y., Hu, . A., Kawakami, . Z., Tabuchi, . M., Yamaguchi, . T., , . H. K. & Ikeda, . S. (2024) Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Vet J, 14 (2), 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



Turabian Style

Kasuga, Yoichiro, Ailing Hu, Zenji Kawakami, Masahiro Tabuchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, and Shigaku Ikeda. 2024. Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (2), 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



Chicago Style

Kasuga, Yoichiro, Ailing Hu, Zenji Kawakami, Masahiro Tabuchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, and Shigaku Ikeda. "Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kasuga, Yoichiro, Ailing Hu, Zenji Kawakami, Masahiro Tabuchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, and Shigaku Ikeda. "Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes." Open Veterinary Journal 14.2 (2024), 683-691. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kasuga, Y., Hu, . A., Kawakami, . Z., Tabuchi, . M., Yamaguchi, . T., , . H. K. & Ikeda, . S. (2024) Suppressive effect of Yokukansan on glutamate released from canine keratinocytes. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (2), 683-691. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i2.8