E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Research Article


Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein

Ella Mae Joy Sinco Sira, Edward Coralde Banico, Nyzar Mabeth Obemio Odchimar, Lauren Emily Fajardo, Ferdinand Fajutagana Fremista Jr., Hanna Angelika Bobis Refuerzo, Ana Patrisha Aribon Dictado, Fredmoore Legaspi Orosco.


Abstract
Background:
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, especially in neonatal pigs. This has resulted in significant economic losses for the pig industry. PEDV genotype II-based vaccines were found to confer better immunity against both heterologous and homologous challenges; specifically, spike (S) proteins, which are known to play a significant role during infection, are ideal for vaccine development.
Aim:
This study aims to design a multi-epitope subunit vaccine targeting the S protein of the PEDV GIIa strain using an immunoinformatics approach for the development of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine targeting the S protein of PEDV GIIa strain.
Methods:
Various bioinformatics tools were used to predict HTL, CTL, and B-cell epitopes. The epitopes were connected using appropriate linkers and conjugated with the CTB adjuvant and M-ligand. The final multi-epitope vaccine construct (fMEVc) was then docked to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The stability of the fMEVc - TLR4 complex was then simulated using GROMACS. C-immsim was then used to predict the in vitro immune response of the fMEVc.
Results:
Using various bioinformatics tools, six (6) epitopes were predicted to induce antibody production, ten (10) epitopes were predicted to induce CTL responses, and four (4) epitopes were predicted to induce HTL responses. The assembled epitopes conjugated with the CTB adjuvant and M-ligand, fMEVc, is antigenic, non-allergenic, stable, and soluble. The construct showed a favorable binding affinity for TLR4, and the protein complex was shown to be stable through molecular dynamics simulations. A robust immune response was induced after immunization, as demonstrated through immune stimulation.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, the multi-epitope subunit vaccine construct for PEDV designed in this study exhibits promising antigenicity, stability, and immunogenicity, eliciting robust immune responses and suggesting its potential as a candidate for further vaccine development.

Key words: Immunoinformatics, Multi-epitope subunit vaccine, PEDV, Reverse vaccinology


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sira EMJS, Banico EC, Odchimar NMO, Fajardo LE, Jr. FFF, Refuerzo HAB, Dictado APA, Orosco FL. Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(5): 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18


Web Style

Sira EMJS, Banico EC, Odchimar NMO, Fajardo LE, Jr. FFF, Refuerzo HAB, Dictado APA, Orosco FL. Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=194064 [Access: June 03, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sira EMJS, Banico EC, Odchimar NMO, Fajardo LE, Jr. FFF, Refuerzo HAB, Dictado APA, Orosco FL. Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(5): 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sira EMJS, Banico EC, Odchimar NMO, Fajardo LE, Jr. FFF, Refuerzo HAB, Dictado APA, Orosco FL. Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited June 03, 2024]; 14(5): 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



Harvard Style

Sira, E. M. J. S., Banico, . E. C., Odchimar, . N. M. O., Fajardo, . L. E., Jr., . F. F. F., Refuerzo, . H. A. B., Dictado, . A. P. A. & Orosco, . F. L. (2024) Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Vet J, 14 (5), 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



Turabian Style

Sira, Ella Mae Joy Sinco, Edward Coralde Banico, Nyzar Mabeth Obemio Odchimar, Lauren Emily Fajardo, Ferdinand Fajutagana Fremista Jr., Hanna Angelika Bobis Refuerzo, Ana Patrisha Aribon Dictado, and Fredmoore Legaspi Orosco. 2024. Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (5), 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



Chicago Style

Sira, Ella Mae Joy Sinco, Edward Coralde Banico, Nyzar Mabeth Obemio Odchimar, Lauren Emily Fajardo, Ferdinand Fajutagana Fremista Jr., Hanna Angelika Bobis Refuerzo, Ana Patrisha Aribon Dictado, and Fredmoore Legaspi Orosco. "Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sira, Ella Mae Joy Sinco, Edward Coralde Banico, Nyzar Mabeth Obemio Odchimar, Lauren Emily Fajardo, Ferdinand Fajutagana Fremista Jr., Hanna Angelika Bobis Refuerzo, Ana Patrisha Aribon Dictado, and Fredmoore Legaspi Orosco. "Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein." Open Veterinary Journal 14.5 (2024), 1224-1242. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sira, E. M. J. S., Banico, . E. C., Odchimar, . N. M. O., Fajardo, . L. E., Jr., . F. F. F., Refuerzo, . H. A. B., Dictado, . A. P. A. & Orosco, . F. L. (2024) Immunoinformatics approach for designing a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotype IIA spike protein. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (5), 1224-1242. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.18