E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Case Report


Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog

Pamela Di Donato, Tiziana Liuti, Jorge P rez Accino, Silke Salavati Schmitz,, Alexis Trivino, Maurizio Longo.


Cited By:4

Abstract
Background: Idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH) generally occurs in healthy large-breed dogs that are <2 years old. It is characterized by recurrent bleeding from the kidneys of unidentified cause. The final diagnosis is reached through exclusion of primary urinary system and systemic causes of hematuria along with the direct visualization of hematic urine jets at the ureteral orifice by cystoscopy.
Case Description: A 8-year-old female neutered Whippet was presented for investigation of a 4-week history of chronic intermittent macroscopic hematuria. Physical examination, systolic blood pressure, extensive laboratory work-up (including coagulation profile and platelet count), urine culture, thoracic & abdominal radiographs, pneumocystogram and double-contrast cystography were all unremarkable. B-mode ultrasound showed no abnormalities apart from moderate amount of suspended echogenic material visible within the urinary bladder lumen. In the contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) study a large amount of echogenic ill-defined material was noted projecting into the urinary bladder lumen from the right ureterovesical junction in fundamental mode. This material was more conspicuous and markedly contrast enhancing in the harmonic mode. Ultrasound contrast medium has the unique property to strictly remain within the vessels without interstitial trapping or elimination by the kidneys. Indeed, the presence of the micro-bubbles into the urinary tract lumen in CEUS study was interpreted as a direct sign of active urinary tract bleeding. A diagnosis of IRH was reached through CEUS and B-mode ultrasound along with an extensive laboratory work-up and periodic follow-up of the patient. No therapy was administered and at 1-year follow-up, the patient was alive with no current episodes of macroscopic hematuria reported.
Conclusion: To the authorsÂ’ knowledge, this is the first report using CEUS for characterization of IRH. CEUS could represent a safe, non-invasive, affordable novel alternative technique to cystoscopy or cystotomy for the real-time diagnosis of IRH.

Key words: Canine, Ureterovesical jet, Kidneys, Bleeding, Urinary bladder


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Donato PD, Liuti T, JPrA, Schmitz, SS, Trivino A, Longo M, . Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Vet J. 2019; 9(4): 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5


Web Style

Donato PD, Liuti T, JPrA, Schmitz, SS, Trivino A, Longo M, . Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=58541 [Access: February 27, 2024]. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Donato PD, Liuti T, JPrA, Schmitz, SS, Trivino A, Longo M, . Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Vet J. 2019; 9(4): 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Donato PD, Liuti T, JPrA, Schmitz, SS, Trivino A, Longo M, . Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Vet J. (2019), [cited February 27, 2024]; 9(4): 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



Harvard Style

Donato, P. D., Liuti, T., , J. P. r. A., Schmitz,, S. S., Trivino, A., Longo, M. & (2019) Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Vet J, 9 (4), 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



Turabian Style

Donato, Pamela Di, Tiziana Liuti, Jorge P rez Accino, Silke Salavati Schmitz,, Alexis Trivino, Maurizio Longo, and . 2019. Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Veterinary Journal, 9 (4), 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



Chicago Style

Donato, Pamela Di, Tiziana Liuti, Jorge P rez Accino, Silke Salavati Schmitz,, Alexis Trivino, Maurizio Longo, and . "Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog." Open Veterinary Journal 9 (2019), 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Donato, Pamela Di, Tiziana Liuti, Jorge P rez Accino, Silke Salavati Schmitz,, Alexis Trivino, Maurizio Longo, and . "Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog." Open Veterinary Journal 9.4 (2019), 309-312. Print. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Donato, P. D., Liuti, T., , J. P. r. A., Schmitz,, S. S., Trivino, A., Longo, M. & (2019) Use of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Open Veterinary Journal, 9 (4), 309-312. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i4.5