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Research Article


Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis

Mohamed H. Kairy, Hosny Abd-El-Fadel, Abd-El-Aleim F. Abd-El-Aleim, Gehan N. Gad, Fatma-El-Zahra A. Youssef, Amira M. Ibrahim, Walaa F. SaadEldin.


Abstract
Background:
The prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the poultry industry has grown, resulting in substantial financial losses from high mortality, stunted growth, reduced productivity, and expensive medical expenses.
Aim:
The purpose of the current study was to assess the immunological effects of neem leaf extract and toltrazuril on broilers that had contracted coccidiosis.
Methods:
In this investigation, 100 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks without sexes were employed. The chicks were divided into five equal groups, with twenty birds in each. On the 14th day of life, the birds in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received an oral inoculation with 1x105 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella )(field isolate). The first group (Gp), which consists of twenty healthy broilers, served as a negative control. Gp (2) contains experimentally infected broilers and non-treated (served as a positive control). Gp (3) contains experimentally infected broilers treated with toltrazuril (1 ml/liter drinking water) for two consecutive days. Gp (4) contains experimentally infected broilers treated with neem leaves extract 4% (50 ml/ litre drinking water) for 5 successive days, and Gp (5) contains experimentally infected broilers treated with toltrazuril (1ml/ liter drinking water) and a half dose of neem leaves extract 4% (25 ml/ liter drinking water) for 5 succissive days. For the purpose of estimating body weight growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR), each broiler was weighed separately at the start of the trial and again on the first and tenth day after treatment. In addition to obtaining intestinal samples for immunohistochemistry, blood samples were also obtained for immunological examination.
Results:
As compared to the negative control group, the experimentally infested broilers with E. tenella showed significant decreases in serum nitric oxide, lysosome, phagocytic percent, and phagocytic index, along with significant increases in WBCs, lymphocyte, heterophilis, eosinophilis, basophilis, monocyte, serum total protein, γ globulin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin. When compared to the control positive group, experimentally infested broilers treated with either neem or toltrazuril alone or in combination demonstrated significant increases in serum total protein, nitric oxide, lysozyme, phagocytic percent, and phagocytic index, but significant decreases in WBCs, lymphocytes, heterophile, eosinophile, basophile, and monocyte. The intestinal peroxidase stain of broilers infected with E. tenella exhibited a significant positive expression for CD4, but the infected broilers treated with toltrazuril and half a dosage of neem displayed a negative expression for CD4, identical to the negative control.
Conclusion:
The broiler chickens infested with E. tenella may have a variety of negative impacts on their immune systems and immunohistopathological findings. Nonetheless, toltrazuril and neem extrat, either separately or in combination, functions as anticoccidial medications that may enhance the broiler chicks' immune state.

Key words: Immunity, Neem extract, Broiler chicks, Coccidiosis, Toltrazuril


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kairy MH, Abd-El-Fadel H, Abd-El-Aleim AF, Gad GN, Youssef FA, Ibrahim AM, SaadEldin WF. Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31


Web Style

Kairy MH, Abd-El-Fadel H, Abd-El-Aleim AF, Gad GN, Youssef FA, Ibrahim AM, SaadEldin WF. Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=178054 [Access: February 13, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kairy MH, Abd-El-Fadel H, Abd-El-Aleim AF, Gad GN, Youssef FA, Ibrahim AM, SaadEldin WF. Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kairy MH, Abd-El-Fadel H, Abd-El-Aleim AF, Gad GN, Youssef FA, Ibrahim AM, SaadEldin WF. Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited February 13, 2024]; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



Harvard Style

Kairy, M. H., Abd-El-Fadel, . H., Abd-El-Aleim, . A. F., Gad, . G. N., Youssef, . F. A., Ibrahim, . A. M. & SaadEldin, . W. F. (2024) Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Vet J, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



Turabian Style

Kairy, Mohamed H., Hosny Abd-El-Fadel, Abd-El-Aleim F. Abd-El-Aleim, Gehan N. Gad, Fatma-El-Zahra A. Youssef, Amira M. Ibrahim, and Walaa F. SaadEldin. 2024. Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



Chicago Style

Kairy, Mohamed H., Hosny Abd-El-Fadel, Abd-El-Aleim F. Abd-El-Aleim, Gehan N. Gad, Fatma-El-Zahra A. Youssef, Amira M. Ibrahim, and Walaa F. SaadEldin. "Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kairy, Mohamed H., Hosny Abd-El-Fadel, Abd-El-Aleim F. Abd-El-Aleim, Gehan N. Gad, Fatma-El-Zahra A. Youssef, Amira M. Ibrahim, and Walaa F. SaadEldin. "Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis." Open Veterinary Journal 14.(1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference) (2024), 341-349. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kairy, M. H., Abd-El-Fadel, . H., Abd-El-Aleim, . A. F., Gad, . G. N., Youssef, . F. A., Ibrahim, . A. M. & SaadEldin, . W. F. (2024) Immunological studies on the effects of toltrazuril and neem extract in broiler chickens suffering from coccidiosis. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 341-349. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.31