E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Original Article


Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Frühvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira.

Abstract
The aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. The affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed from their dam naturally. After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed. Milk and blood from the mother, as well as blood from the healthy and affected cubs were collected in order to evaluate complete blood counts, serum chemistry values, and amino acid levels. The amino acid concentrations in the artificial formula were also evaluated for comparison to the milk from the dam. The concentration of taurine, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine were very low in the artificial formulas as compared to the dam´s milk. The tiger cubs that received the artificial formula had lower levels of the amino acids listed previously as compared to those that nursed from the dam naturally. Taurine, as well as arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine deficiency appeared to be possible causes of the development of skin problems, cataracts and strabismus in the tiger cubs fed with these particular artificial milk replacers. In the future, special attention should be given in order to make sure that adequate levels of these amino acids are present in artificial milk for tiger cubs.

Key words: Amino acids, nutritional deficiency, taurine, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, cataracts, strabismus, alopecia, wild felid


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Vet J. 2017; 7(1): 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4


Web Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=243266 [Access: February 04, 2023]. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Vet J. 2017; 7(1): 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Vet J. (2017), [cited February 04, 2023]; 7(1): 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



Harvard Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira (2017) Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Vet J, 7 (1), 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



Turabian Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. 2017. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Veterinary Journal, 7 (1), 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



Chicago Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. "Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs." Open Veterinary Journal 7 (2017), 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira. "Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs." Open Veterinary Journal 7.1 (2017), 23-31. Print. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Fruhvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira (2017) Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in tiger (Panthera tigris) cubs. Open Veterinary Journal, 7 (1), 23-31. doi:10.4314/ovj.v7i1.4