E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Original Research


Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

L.W. Tee* and M. Najiah.


Abstract
Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

Key words: Antibiotics, Heavy metal, Bullfrog, Bacteria.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by L.W. Tee* and M. Najiah
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Vet J. 2011; 1(0): 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39


Web Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=302656807 [Access: May 02, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Vet J. 2011; 1(0): 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Vet J. (2011), [cited May 02, 2024]; 1(0): 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



Harvard Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah (2011) Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Vet J, 1 (0), 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



Turabian Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. 2011. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Veterinary Journal, 1 (0), 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



Chicago Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. "Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia." Open Veterinary Journal 1 (2011), 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah. "Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia." Open Veterinary Journal 1.0 (2011), 39-45. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

L.W. Tee and M. Najiah (2011) Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Veterinary Journal, 1 (0), 39-45. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2011.v1.i0.p39