E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Original Article


Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles

Anne J Carter, Sophie S Connolly, Emily J Hall, Zoe Russell, Kirsty Mitchell.


Cited By:13

Abstract
Background
Dogs are regularly transported or housed in vehicles, with guidelines for housing dogs suggesting that the ambient temperature should be maintained between 15 – 24 °C. Veterinary drugs are routinely stored and carried in vehicles providing ambulatory veterinary care. Non-refrigerated medications typically require storage between 8 – 25 °C. This study aimed to investigate the potential for thermal stress associated with vehicular storage and transportation of drugs and dogs in a temperate climate such as the United Kingdom.
Methods
The study used data loggers to continuously record internal temperatures of four vehicles at 15-minute intervals over a two-year period, to investigate the effect of seasonality and time of day on internal car temperature.
Results
Internal car temperature ranged from -7.4 °C to 54.5 °C during the study period. Temperatures fell below 8 °C in every month except June and July. Internal car temperature exceeded typical drug storage recommendations (> 25°C) during every month, and exceeded the canine thermo-neutral zone (> 35°C) from April to September. Peak temperatures occurred between 14:00 and 17:00 hours.
Conclusion
The results demonstrate the year-round potential for thermal stress of both dogs and drugs left in cars. Public awareness campaigns highlighting the risks of leaving dogs in hot cars are typically launched in late spring, but should consider launching earlier in light of these findings. Veterinary surgeons transporting drugs should take measures to ensure drugs are stored within the manufacturer’s temperature range year-round. This will limit the potential for drug degradation and decreased efficacy.

Key words: Car temperature, drug storage, dog transport, thermal stress


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Carter AJ, Connolly SS, Hall EJ, Russell Z, Mitchell K, . Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Vet J. 2020; 10(2): 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11


Web Style

Carter AJ, Connolly SS, Hall EJ, Russell Z, Mitchell K, . Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=83406 [Access: February 27, 2024]. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Carter AJ, Connolly SS, Hall EJ, Russell Z, Mitchell K, . Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Vet J. 2020; 10(2): 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Carter AJ, Connolly SS, Hall EJ, Russell Z, Mitchell K, . Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Vet J. (2020), [cited February 27, 2024]; 10(2): 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



Harvard Style

Carter, A. J., Connolly, S. S., Hall, E. J., Russell, Z., Mitchell, K. & (2020) Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Vet J, 10 (2), 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



Turabian Style

Carter, Anne J, Sophie S Connolly, Emily J Hall, Zoe Russell, Kirsty Mitchell, and . 2020. Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Veterinary Journal, 10 (2), 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



Chicago Style

Carter, Anne J, Sophie S Connolly, Emily J Hall, Zoe Russell, Kirsty Mitchell, and . "Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles." Open Veterinary Journal 10 (2020), 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Carter, Anne J, Sophie S Connolly, Emily J Hall, Zoe Russell, Kirsty Mitchell, and . "Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles." Open Veterinary Journal 10.2 (2020), 216-225. Print. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Carter, A. J., Connolly, S. S., Hall, E. J., Russell, Z., Mitchell, K. & (2020) Drugs, dogs and driving: the potential for year-round thermal stress in UK vehicles. Open Veterinary Journal, 10 (2), 216-225. doi:10.4314/ovj.v10i2.11