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Short Communication


Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016

Nadira S. Mohamed, Ahmed Kandeil, Ibrahim AL-Zubaidy, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ali.


Cited By:8

Abstract
Little is known about the antigenic and genetics characteristics of circulating avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Iraq. This study describes the first full genome sequence of AI H9N2 isolates from chickens in Iraq in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of surface glycoproteins and internal segments (PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS) indicated that the Iraqi H9N2 viruses were closely related to G1-like lineage of H9N2 viruses isolated from Pakistan and Iran indicating possible epidemiological links. The PB1 segments of the current characterized H9N2 viruses were not related to any of the previously characterized H9N2 viruses and closely similar to AI H7N7 virus detected in chickens in Germany in 2015. Multiple genetic determinants for virulence and mammalian transmission were characterized in the characterized H9N2 viruses in Iraq. The antigenic analysis showed a close relationship between H9N2 viruses in Iraq and contemporary H9N2 viruses in Egypt and Lebanon. Like H9N2 viruses, Iraqis H9N2 virus bound to human-like receptor rather than avian-like receptor thus represent a public health risk.

Key words: Avian influenza virus, H9N2, Iraq.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Mohamed NS, Kandeil A, AL-Zubaidy I, Kayali G, Ali M, . Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Vet J. 2019; 9(2): 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12


Web Style

Mohamed NS, Kandeil A, AL-Zubaidy I, Kayali G, Ali M, . Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=19537 [Access: June 04, 2024]. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mohamed NS, Kandeil A, AL-Zubaidy I, Kayali G, Ali M, . Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Vet J. 2019; 9(2): 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mohamed NS, Kandeil A, AL-Zubaidy I, Kayali G, Ali M, . Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Vet J. (2019), [cited June 04, 2024]; 9(2): 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



Harvard Style

Mohamed, N. . S., Kandeil, A. ., AL-Zubaidy, I. ., Kayali, G. ., Ali, M. . & (2019) Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Vet J, 9 (2), 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



Turabian Style

Mohamed, Nadira S., Ahmed Kandeil, Ibrahim AL-Zubaidy, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ali, and . 2019. Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Veterinary Journal, 9 (2), 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



Chicago Style

Mohamed, Nadira S., Ahmed Kandeil, Ibrahim AL-Zubaidy, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ali, and . "Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 ." Open Veterinary Journal 9 (2019), 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mohamed, Nadira S., Ahmed Kandeil, Ibrahim AL-Zubaidy, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ali, and . "Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 ." Open Veterinary Journal 9.2 (2019), 164-171. Print. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mohamed, N. . S., Kandeil, A. ., AL-Zubaidy, I. ., Kayali, G. ., Ali, M. . & (2019) Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq 2016 . Open Veterinary Journal, 9 (2), 164-171. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12